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History Timeline of Tunisia

History Timeline of Tunisia,
graphics (c) 2010-2014 by TunisPro
-10000 Homo Sapiens in North Africa during the Mesolithic Era (Stone Age). The Berber language is brought to Northwest Africa by tribes from the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia. In Gafsa is the "Capsian culture" located.

-5000 The Neolithic culture starts, todays Tunisia is inhabited by the Numidians. Large parts of the Sahara consist of savanne and forests. Old paintings show a variety of animals, like elephants, giraffes, cheetahs.

-2500 The re-desertification of the Sahara begins, in the following years, the desert and sahel regions increase significantly

-1101 Phoenicians found the city of Utica

- 814 Phoenicians from the Middle East found the city of Carthage (Kart Hudesht = new city) for the Queen Elissa (Dido) from Tyrus
In the course of the years, the colony becomes independent.

-220 The berber tribe of Massyli rules the Southwest und South of todays Tunisia from Thala (Dorsale) and Gafsa (Capsus) and are allied with the Roman Empire.

The 3rd Punic War between Carthage and Rome starts in -149 because Carthage attacks Massylia

-146 Carthage looses the war in the Battle of Zama, Carthage is being destroyed.
The territory is now seized by the Roman Empire and called Province Afriqa

-46 Gaius Julius Caesar begins the reconstruction of Carthage, the capital of the Roman province is moved later to Carthage

439 The Vandals occupy Carthage and the roman province

534 The Bycanthinians (East Roman Empire) recapture North Afriqa

670 An arab muslim army of the Umayyads attacks and beats the Berbers in Central Tunisia, building a stronghold in Kairouan

705 Carthage and Utica are destroyed, Tunis is founded

800 The Aghlabides (Bani Tamim) pay tribut to Harun al Rashid in Bagdad

909 The Fatimids (Shiite Muslims) occupy Kairouan. After a short time, they found a new capital in Mahdia

973 The Fatimides leave Tunisia for Egypt

The Zirid Berbers seize power

1048 The Zirid Berbers become Sunnites

1057 The Fatimides send Bedouins from Egypt to Tunisia. The tribe of Banu Hilal seizes Kairouan

1134-1148 Normans from Sicily occupy Tunis

1160 The Almohad Berbers compel the Christians to retreat to Sicily

1230-1534 The Hafsides rule

1534 Spain occupies Tunis

1569 Corsair Uluj Ali of the Ottoman Empire occupies Tunis

1573 Don Juan of Austria retakes Tunis for Spain

1574 Uluj Ali regains Tunis for the Ottoman Empire

1613-1702 Muradid Beys

1702-1705 Ibrahim Sharif with Algerian backing

1705 -1881 Husaynid Beys

1881 Tunisia is now a french Protectorate

1956 Tunisia becomes independent. The first President is Habib Bourguiba, followed in 1987 by Zine El Abidine Ben Ali who becomes increasingly a dictator and executes nepotism.

2011 A general insurgency by the Tunisia citizens forces President Ben Ali to flee the country (14th January) and topples the government.
On 23rd October, the first democratic elections take place when Tunisia elected the "General Assembly for preparing a new constitution for Tunisia". The religious party En-Nahda (Ennahda, Nahda) wins the majority of the votes in the Assembly and sets up a temporary government and president until elections for the parliament will take place, probably in the autumn of 2014.

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